-----\nIf your answer is incorrect, you can click on the link and re-read the appropriate part of the text.\n-----\n 1. [[subject|frame 2]]\n 2. [[classified|frame 5]]\n 3. [[providence|frame 12]]\n 4. [[sought|frame 27]]\n 5. [[subheadings|frame 20]]\n 6. [[generality|frame 23]]\n 7. [[the classified section|frame 8]]\n 8. [[b) and d)|frame 31]]\n 9. [[compound|frame 44]]\n10. [[is not|frame 44]]\n11. [[b)|frame 44]]\n12. [[marginal arrow|frame 48]]\n13. [[false link|frame 58]]\n14. [[false link|frame 61]]\n15. [[false link|frame 57]]\n16. [[unsought|frame 65]]\n17. [[superordinate|frame 68]]\n18. [[general reference|frame 86]]\n19. [[c)|frame 84]]\n20. [[are|frame 84]]\n-----\nIf you scored 15 or more, that's a very good result; between 10 and 15, moderate; less than 10... well, you probably need to work through the text again, and [[do the reading|Bibliography]].\n-----
''Some worked examples.''\n\n1.'''//Television in the school//''' Class no: ''371.3358''\n\n//Analysis://\n371.3358    —Television\n371.335      —Visual materials and devices\n371.33        —Audio-visual materials for teaching\n371.3          —Methods of instruction and study\n371             —The school\n37               —Education\n3                 —Social sciences\n\n//Index entries://\n''Television: Visual aids: Education—371.3358''\n''Visual aids: Education—371.335''\n''Audio-visual aids: Education—371.33''\n''Teaching methods: Education—371.3''\n''Education—370''\n\nThink about it. Why have some of the terms been changed? Why does the index chain stop at ''Education''?\n\n[[Next example|app1.2]]
''Worked examples in other classification schemes.''\n<<<\nAlthough this text has been concerned specifically with the Decimal Classification, 17th ed., it must be pointed out that the technique works with other schemes. Note, however, that great care must be exercised with schemes that do not reveal their hierarchical structure in the notation.\n<<<\n\n-------\n\n//Universal Decimal Classification Scheme//\n''Analysis of polymers by gas chromatography'' Class no: ''541.64:543.544''\n\n541.64:543.544&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Gas chromatography\n541.64:543.54&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Adsorption methods\n541.64:543.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Physical chemical methods\n541.64:543&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Analytical chemistry\n541.64&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Polymers\n541.64&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Molecular chemistry\n541.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Chemical structure in relation to properties.\n541&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;General, theoretical and physical chemistry\n54&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Chemistry\n5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Mathematical and natural sciences\n\n//Index entries://\n''Gas chromatography: Analytical chemistry: Polymers&mdash;541.64:543.544\nChromotography: Analytical chemistry: Polymers&mdash;541.64:543.544\nAdsorption methods: Analytical chemistry: Polymers&mdash;541.64:543.54\nAnalytical chemistry: Polymers&mdash;541.64:543\nPolymers: Chemistry&mdash;541.64\nMacromolecular chemistry&mdash;541.64\nPhysical chemistry&mdash;541\nChemistry&mdash;54\nScience&mdash;5\nNatural science&mdash;5\n\n[[Next example|app2.2]]\n\n
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''The original references''\n\nCoates, E.J. (1960). //Subject catalogues: headings and structure//. London: Library Association. [See Chapters IX and X]\n\nMills, J. (1955). Chain indexing and the classified catalogue. //Library Association Record//, ''57'', 141-148.\n\nRanganathan, S.R. (1965). //Chain procedure: its developments, its uses, its light on basic class and its problems.// Paper delivered at the DRTC Seminar, No. 3, 1965. (Paper U).\n\nRanganathan, S.R. (1964). //Classified catalogue code.// 5th ed. Asia Publishing House. [See chapters KB and KC]\n\n''Some additional references''\n\nBatty, C.D. (1970). Chain indexing. In //Encyclopcdia of library and information science//, v. 4, 427.\n\nDevadason, F.J., Intaraksa, N., Patamawongjariya, P. and Desai, K. (2002). Faceted indexing based system for organizing and accessing Internet resources. //Knowledge organization//, ''29''(2), 65-77 \n\nHenriksen, T. (1982). On the mechanization of the chain index. In I. Dahlberg, (Ed.). //Universal classification II: subject analysis and ordering systems. Proc. of the 4th Int. Study Conf. on Classification research, Augsburg, 28.6.-2.7.1982.// (p. 102).\nFrankfurt: Indeks.\n\nLiu, S. and Svenonius, E. (1991). DORS: DDC Online Retrieval System. //Library Resources and Technical Services//, ''35''(4), 359-375.\n\nRemesh Kumar, V. and Parameswaran, M. (1998). Chain indexing and LISA. //Knowledge organization//, ''25''(1-2), 3-15.\n\nRemesh Kumar, V. and Parameswaran, M. (1999). Chain indexing and UDC. //Annals of library science and documentation, ''46''(2), 53-58.
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\nSee it in action here: http://lewcid.googlepages.com/tots.html\n\n!!Editing this TW:\nOpen the TW with #author:true at the end of the url/file location to enable editing.\nPreview edits by using the "Presentation Mode" button in the MainMenu\n//(To make future editing easier, bookmark the file with #author:true at the end of the file name. One click and edit!)//\n\n!!Changing the content and order of the presentation:\nEdit the PresentationIndex tiddler to change the contents and order of the presentation.\n\n!! Customizing the default (viewing) interface.\nEdit the following tiddlers as needed:\n*PageTemplate\n*StyleSheet\n*ViewTemplate\n*EditTemplate\n*MainMenu\n\n!!Customizing the editing (author's) interface.\nEdit the following tiddlers as needed: //(Note that these files are optional, if any of them dont exist, the standard viewing one will be used instead. So if you only want to change the PageTemplate, you only need an AuthorPageTemplate tiddler.)//\n*AuthorPageTemplate\n*AuthorStyleSheet\n*AuthorViewTemplate\n*AuthorEditTemplate\n*AuthorMainMenu\n\n!!Using a different stylesheet or theme:\nUsing your own favorite stylesheet or theme is as simple as importing those tiddlers into this file.\nIf you are changing the presentation interface, just import the PageTemplate and StyleSheet. If you want to change the editing interface, you will need to copy over the PageTemplate and StyleSheet as AuthorPageTemplate and AuthorStyleSheet respectively.\n\n!!Other tips:\n* Use the tiddler StyleSheetCommon and include it using {{{[[StyleSheetCommon]]}}} in your StyleSheet and AuthorStyleSheet when making stlyesheet changes that you want applied to both the presentation and editing interface, to avoid having to type it out twice!\n*To provide easy control over the font-size, use the FontSizePlugin: http://lewcid.googlepages.com/lewcid.html#FontSizePlugin\n* If this presentation is going to be placed online, you might want to have a splash screen that displays while the TW is loading: http://lewcid.googlepages.com/lewcid.html#SplashScreenPlugin
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Dr. S.R. Ranganathan\n\nDetermining the subject heading of a book is an important piece of work in cataloguing. When I learnt cataloguing in the University College, London, in 1924, much attention was not paid to this. In a few classes we were asked to guess the subject heading. In the course of the year, I found that there was some guidance in the //Rules for dictionary catalogue//, by C.A. Cutter. But the application of these rules required judgement of an involved nature. When I began to teach cataloguing in the Madras University in 1929, I found that the students did not feel sufficiently enlightened by this method of fixing the subject heading. Therefore, I introduced them to the use of the American Library Association's //List of subject headings//. Two difficulties were felt by the students in the use of this //List//. One was that for a new subject not represented in the //List//, it was not easy for them to construct the subject heading. Secondly, the abler students felt no challenge in this method; they felt bored.\n\nBy 1935, I realised that the determination of the subject heading was in essence equivalent to the determination of the class number. This made me examine whether the work already done in assigning class number cannot also serve in assigning subject heading. I examined the //List// from this angle. But there was no explicit clue given in that book as to how the committee arrived at their several subject headings. This made me find out how they might have arrived at them. After some trial, it struck me that the headings in the //List// were closely correlated to decimal class numbers. Then I tried to work out the nature of the correlation. This was the genesis of 'chain procedure', now named 'chain indexing'. I applied this method with the colon class number also as the basis. I found that in a few cases where a heading in the //List// did not agree with the decimal chain, it agreed with the colon chain. This made me infer that:\n\n1. The committee on subject headings was more sensitive to the readers' approach than the decimal class number.\n2. The colon class number was as sensitive to the readers' approach as the committee was.\n\nThis made me feel that a secondary use of chain procedure might well be a means of comparing two different schemes for classification.\n\nI incorporated the idea and the method of chain indexing in my //Theory of library catalogue// (1938). The rules of my classified catalogue code for subject heading were reframed on the basis of chain indexing in its second edition (1945), But I had brought the chain indexing method into use even in 1936, both in the catalogue of the Madras University Library and in teaching cataloguing in that university. I found that the cataloguer felt a considerable saving of time by the use of this method and that it also gave satisfaction to the students, in fact I found them enjoying this method of establishing subject headings. It is gratifying to learn that chain indexing has become the commonly accepted method today, as Mr. Wilson puts it.\n\nDuring the last thirty years the chain indexing method has been continuously refined to meet the requirements of micro subjects. This process of refinement has opened up an apparently never-ending line of research for cataloguers. Many interesting results of research in chain indexing are coming up almost every year at the Annual Seminar of the Documentation Research and Training Centre (Bangalore). These concern the advanced cataloguing of micro documents.\n\nWhen I began teaching in 1917, I soon realised the necessity for replacing the mass-lecturing method of teaching by the method of individual instruction. I was then teaching mathematics. I found that it gave a very good return to the satisfaction of myself and that of the students. I, therefore, adopted this method in teaching library science also. I have been continuing it all these years. I am glad that this method of individual instruction is coming into vogue in the schools of library science in the UK. It puts the students ever in the active mood of search through personal effort. This is the best way of helping each student to educate himself to his own fullness, along his own lines, and at his own speed. Now a tendency has begun to print and publish the 'notes of lessons' suited to this method. For the first time, I heard the expression 'scrambled textbook' to denote this kind of notes of lessons in the books of Mr. C.D. Batty relating to the teaching of classification by decimal classification and colon classification respectively.\n\nMr Wilson has now brought out a scrambled textbook on teaching chain indexing. First I wondered why he asked me to write this introductory note to his book. Further correspondence showed me that he was a student in the school of lbirary science at Newcastle when I conducted a few lessons there in 1956. This fact has added a personal charm to the opportunity given to me to write these few words as a foreword to Mr. Wilson's excellent //Introduction to chain indexing: a programmed textbook//.\n\nS.R. Ranganathan
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This is a 'scrambled' or 'programmed' textbook. It is based on the knowledge that different individuals progress at different speeds in learning and allows them to go at their own pace, rather than having to 'run with the pack' in a lecture.\n\nThe classification scheme used in the examples in this book is the 17th edition of the Dewey //Decimal classification// (DC), and you will need a copy of the schedules by you as you work through the book.\n\nRead each piece of instruction carefully and choose an answer from those given at the end of the section, or do the piece of practical work set. Then turn to the frame indicated by the answer and proceed as before.\n\nAbove all, don't be disheartened by making mistakes - that's how we learn.\n\n[[Now begin|frame 1]]\n\n-----\n\nYou can save a copy of this file on your own machine, or on any portable medium, such as a USB drive, for use when you are not connected to the Internet. Simply ''right'' click on the 'Save this file link' and select 'Save link as...' (or 'Save target as...', depending on your browser), and then identifying an appropriate folder into which to save the file. ''[[Firefox|http://www.mozilla.com]]'' is the preferred browser for ~TiddlyWiki.\n\n-----
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[[Instructions]]\n[[Foreword]] by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan\n[[Original preface]]\n[[Preface to this edition]]\n[[Appendix 1]]\n[[Appendix 2]]\n[[Self test]]\n[[Bibliography]]\n\n[[Save this file|http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/chain_indexing/chain_indexing.html]]: see [[Instructions]]\n\n<<author>>\n\n<html><body>\n<a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/">\n<img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://creativecommons.org/images/public/somerights20.png" />\n</a><br>\n<A HREF="http://www.digits.com">\n<IMG SRC="http://counter.digits.com/wc/-d/-z/6/-b/FF0033/chain" ALIGN=middle\n WIDTH=60 HEIGHT=20 BORDER=0 HSPACE=4 VSPACE=2 ALT="Visitor Counter by Digits"></A>\n\n</body></html>
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This programmed text is intended as an elementary introduction to a subject which is often a source of considerable difficulty for students. For this reason I have emphasized the most fundamental aspects of the technique: for more advanced methods and problems the student is referred to the brief [[Bibliography]].\n\nThe text has been tested with groups of students and, when used as a class text, it has been found that the best method is to use it as a supplement to normal lectures, that is, giving additional examples and exercises as students complete a specific problem area dealt with in the text.\n\nI would like to acknowledge the assistance I have received from my colleagues in the Department of Librarianship, particularly Mr. G.A. Ibbs who field-tested the text. I am also grateful to the editor of this series, Mr David Batty, for his helpful criticisms of the original draft, and to Mr. Derek Austin of BNB, who made some last-minute suggestions, and I especially indebted to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan who made many useful suggestions and who wrote the [[Foreword]]. Needless to say, for any errors and eccentricities that remain, I am wholly responsible.\n\nI also feel that due recognition ought to be given to the work of A.J. Wells and his colleagues at BNB who pioneered the technique in our national bibliography, and did it so effectively as to create what is in effect a 'national authority file', consulted whenever practical problems arise.\n\nThose parts of the book directly reproduced from the 17th edition of the //Dewey decimal classification//, and from the //British national bibliography// are by permission of the copyright owners.\n\nFinally, I would like to acknowledge a major debt by dedicating this book to my mother and to the memory of my father: without their self-sacrifices my professional career, and hence this book, would have been impossible.\n\nT.D. Wilson\nBSc(Econ), FLA\nPrincipal lecturer\nDepartment of Librarianship\nNewcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic\n
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The print version of this text was published in 1971 by Clive Bingley Ltd. (when it cost the princely sum of £1.50. You can now find a copy at Amazon.com for $37.77!) and, according to Google a number of schools continue to have it on their reading lists, although the card catalogues to which the text relates have now virtually disappeared from use. In the spirit of open access, this edition is made freely available to all under a Creative Commons '~Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works' licence.\n\nI have received enquiries about the text over the years since it fell out of print and I have occasionally toyed with the idea of producing an updated Web version; but the question would then be, who would use it? However, the discovery of [[TiddlyWiki]] has provided me with a means to produce a Web version of the original text quite easily and quickly and, consequently, all I needed to do was to find some occasional moments in my schedule to do the typing.\n\nThe //programmed text// had a certain popularity thirty or more years ago and Clive Bingley Ltd., produced a number of them by authors such as David Batty, Philip Corrigan, Jean Perreault and T.W. Burrell and they were an attempt, although not spoken of in these terms, to realise //hypertext// in a printed form. Before the widespread use of computers, preparing a programmed text involved writing 'frames' on cards and then organizing them for printing: ~TiddlyWiki makes all that work unnecessary as each 'frame' is a new 'tiddler', which will not be visible until its link is clicked upon. \n\nChain indexing continues to attract attention in relation to automatic means of index production and perhaps this old text will still find some readers. Note that this //is// the old text, with one or two minor changes in wording to account for the new format or to clarify here and there, and no attempt has been made to bring it up to date with more recent editions of the //Decimal Classification// scheme. I would be very happy if some present teacher of classification did check the numbers and terms used and let me have any corrections.\n\nRe-reading the Foreword, which Dr. Ranganathan kindly contributed, it struck me how interested he would have been in this method of publication. However, he died in 1972, a year after the publication of this book, at the age of 80 and never knew, therefore, the world of the Web in which we are now all caught. I think that he would also have been enthusiastic about open access publishing, of which this is an example - his own enthusiasm to spread knowledge certainly had more to do with his desire to enable students to learn for themselves than to acquire worldly goods! He was noted for the simplicity of his lifestyle.\n\nDr Ranganathan referred to his visit to Newcastle Library School - readers of this piece may be interested in this photograph: Dr Ranganathan will be obvious to all, and the young T.D. Wilson can be seen to his right, immediately behind the young lady with the dark hair.\n\n[img[ranganathan.jpg]]\n\nT.D. Wilson\nSheffield, April 2007\n
DummyTiddler1\nDummyTiddler2\n[[Dummy Tiddler 3]]
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''This is not (yet) an interactive test, so you will need to write the answers down on a sheet of paper and then check your results. Supply the missing words or identify the correct choice, as appropriate.''\n\n-----\n\n1. Chain indexing is a method of alphabetical ''.........................'' indexing.\n\n2. An index based on chain indexing is a guide to the ''.........................'' \n\n3. For the class number 214.8, the first term to be indexed will be ''.........................''\n\n4. Index entries are made for every ''.........................'' link in a class number.\n\n5. Index headings require ''.........................'' to define the subject clearly.\n\n6. Subheadings must be chosen in strict order of increasing ''.........................''\n\n7. Chain indexing economises in the number of index entries allotted to a book because it does not duplicate the structure of the ''.........................''\n\n8. Which of the following headings are not allowed under the rules of chain indexing?\n>a) Literature\n>b) Literature, French\n>c) Criticism\n>d) English poetry\n>e) English literature\n\n9. A heading that covers more than one concept is called a ''.........................''\n\n10. ''341.57''&mdash;Commercial law ''is'' or ''is not'' a heading that covers more than one concept?\n\n11. When indexing a class number that covers more than one concept, does one choose:\n>a) the full class name as given in the heading; or\n>b) only the term relating to the book in hand?\n\n12. The indicator of a //hidden link// in DC is a ''.........................''\n\n13. A link that represents a time concept without a proper name is called a ''.........................''\n\n14. A link that represents a class which is not strictly superordinate to a previous link is called a ''.........................''\n\n15. The zero indicator symbol for form divisions is a ''.........................''\n\n16. An ''.........................'' link is one that represents a concept for which readers are unlikely to search when looking for the specific subject represented by the final digit of the class number.\n\n17. A heading may be inverted when its ''.........................'' class is not represented in the chain.\n\n18. Form divisions require a ''.........................'' in the index.\n\n19. Are digits added to a schedule number as the result of a 'divide like' note:\n>a) ignored,\n>b) treated in a special manner, or\n>c) treated in the same way as any other digit?\n\n20. Area subdivisions ''are'' or ''are not'' analysed and indexed in the same way as the rest of a class number?\n\n\n[[Here are the answers|Answers]]\n\n\n\n\n\n
<<search>><<closeAll>><<permaview>><<newTiddler>><<newJournal 'DD MMM YYYY'>><<saveChanges>><<slider chkSliderOptionsPanel OptionsPanel 'options »' 'Change TiddlyWiki advanced options'>>
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Web edition of a programmed text, by T.D. Wilson
An introduction to chain indexing
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This text uses [[TiddlyWiki|http://www.tiddlywiki.com]], an ingenous piece of document production software developed by Jeremy Ruston and described as 'a reusable, non-linear, personal Web notebook', which has found multiple uses as a personal organizer, a way of collecting notes for a thesis, etc. I think this is its first use for a programmed text, but there may be others out there. It is certainly an obvious application.
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2. '''//The peregrine//''' Class no: ''598.9''\n\n//Analysis://\n598.9[1]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Peregrine\n598.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Falconiformes (Birds of prey)\n598.3-.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Specific orders\n598.2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Aves (Birds)\n598&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Reptiles and birds\n592-599&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Taxonomic zoology\n590&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Zoological sciences\n\n//Index entries://\n''Peregrine: Birds&mdash;598.9[1]\nPredators: Birds&mdash;598.9\nFalconiformes: Birds&mdash;598.9\nBirds: Zoology&mdash;598.2\nAves: Zoology&mdash;598.2\nTaxonomy: Zoology&mdash;592-599\nZoology&mdash;590''\n\nNote that synonyms are indexed directly to the class number&mdash;there are no specific references in a chain index file.\n\nWhat do you observe about the nature of terms and links in this example? For example, what hidden, false or unsought links can you identify and why are some terms changed?\n\n[[Next example|app1.3]]
3. ''//'Fashion drawing'//'' Class no. ''741.672''\n\n//Analysis://\n741.672&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Fashion drawing\n741.67&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Advertisements and posters\n741.64-.69&mdash;For specific mediums\n741.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Illustration (Commercial art)\n741.5-.7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Drawing and drawings for specific purposes\n741-744&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Drawing and drawings\n74&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Drawing and decorative arts\n7&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;The arts\n\n//Index entries://\n''Fashion drawing: Commercial art&mdash;741.672\nCommercial art&mdash;741.6\nDrawing&mdash;741/744\nArts&mdash;700\nFine arts&mdash;700''\n\nAgain, what to you observe about the nature of the links and the choice of terms?\n\n[[Next example|app1.4]]\n\n\n\n\n\n\n
''//'Archaeological excavation'//'' Class no: ''913.0310283''\n\n//Analysis://\n913.0310283&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Excavation of remains\n913.031028&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Techniques\n913.031&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Archaeology\n913.03&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Man and his civilization\n913&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Geography of ancient world\n913-919&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Geography of specific continents\n910&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;General geography\n900&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;General geography and history\n\n//Index terms://\n''Excavation: Archaeology&mdash;913.0310283\nArchaeology-913.031''\n\nVery few index entries for a very long chain&mdash;why?\n\nDo you want to see more examples from different schemes? Go to [[Appendix 2]]
//Library of Congress Classification//\n''An introduction to vector analysis'' Class no: ''~QA261''\n\n//Analysis://\n~QA261&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Vector analysis\n~QA251&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Universal algebra. Linear algebra\n~QA152-297&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Algebra\nQA&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Mathematics\nQ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Science\n\n//Index entries://\n''Vector analysis: Algebra&mdash;~QA261\nLinear algebra&mdash;~QA251 to ~QA263\nAlgebra&mdash;~QA152 to ~QA297\nMathematics&mdash;QA\nScience&mdash;Q\nNatural sciences&mdash;Q\n\n[[Next example|app2.3]]\n
//Library of Congress Classification//\n''Communism in the United States'' Class no: ''~HX653''\n\n//Analysis://\n~HX653&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;United States\n~HX651-780&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;By country\n~HX626-999&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Communism\n\n//Index entries//\n''USA: Communism&mdash;~HX653\nCommunism&mdash;~HX626 to ~HX999\n\n[[Next example|app2.4]]\n\n
//Library of Congress Classification//\n''Prison visiting: a social worker's guide'' Class no: ''~HV7428''\n\n//Analysis://\n~HV7428&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Social work with delinquents and criminals\n~HV7231-9920&mdash;Penology\n~HV6001-9920&mdash;Criminology\nHV&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Social pathology\n\n//Index entries://\n''Prison visiting: Penology&mdash;~HV7428\nSocial work: Criminals: Penology&mdash;~HV7428\nSocial work: Delinquents: Penology&mdash;~HV7428\nPenology&mdash;~HV7231 to ~HV9920\nCriminology&mdash;~HV6001 to ~HV9920\nSocial pathology&mdash;HV\nPathology, Social&mdash;HV\n\n[[Next example|app2.5]]
//Bibliographic Classification//\n''Electrodynamics of planetary bodies'' Class no: ''DF,O''\n\n//Analysis://\nDF,O&nbsp;&mdash;Electrodynamics\nDF&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Planets, the solar system\nD/DF&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Astronomy\nA/G&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Science. Natural science.\n\n//Index://\n''Electrodynamics: Planets&mdash;DF,O\nPlanets: Astronomy&mdash;DF\nAstronomy&mdash;D to DF\nScience&mdash;A to G\nNatural sciences&mdash;A to G''\n\n[[Next example|app2.6]]
//Bibliographic Classification//\n''Mediaeval castles in Northumberland: an architectural guide'' Class no: ''VCP,Bern''\n\n//Analysis://\nVCP,Bern&nbsp;&mdash;Northumberland\nVCP,Ber&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Northeastern England\nVCP,Be&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Great Britain\nVCP,B&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Mediaeval\nVCP&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Palaces, castles, chateau, etc.\n~VCN-VCP&nbsp;&mdash;Architecture of dwellings\n~VCE-VCY&nbsp;&mdash;Practical architecture\nVC&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Art, technic, education and profession of architecture\n~VA-VD&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Architecture\n\n//Index entries://\n''Northumberland: Mediaeval castles: Architecture&mdash;VCP,Bern\nGreat Britain: Mediaeval castles: Architecture&mdash;VCP,Be\nMediaeval castle: Architecture&mdash;VCP,B\nCastles: Architecture&mdash;VCP\nDwellings: Architecture&mdash;VCN to VCP\nArchitecture&mdash;VA to VD''\n\n[[Next example|app2.7]]
//Bibliographic Classification//\n''Mail order marketing'' Class no: ''TJUQ''\n\n//Analysis//\nTJUQ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Mail order retailing\nTJU&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Retail mercantile business\n~TJQ-TJY&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Mercantile business\nTJ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Business\nT&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&mdash;Economics\n\n//Index entries//\n''Mail order: Retail business&mdash;TJUQ\nRetail business&mdash;TJU\nBusiness&mdash;TJ\nEconomics&mdash;T''\n\nYou can now take a [[self test|Self test]]
An introduction to chain indexing - T.D. Wilson
One of the chief types of library catalogue is that in which the major section contains main entries arranged in classified order by the notational symbols of the classification scheme in use in the library.\n\nThis kind of catalogue is called:\n\n*[[A dictionary catalogue|frame 2]]\n*[[A classified catalogue|frame 3]]\n*[[An alphabetico/classed catalogue|frame 4]]
Good, this is absolutely correct.\n\nNow we must consider how the alphabetical subject index is constructed. One commonly accepted method today is known as //chain indexing//, so called because the method uses the concept of a chain of classes from the main class to the subdivision under which the book is classified. Thus, in any one main class we have as many chains as there are subdivisions, e.g., in 800 LITERATURE we have:\n*800 - LITERATURE\n*810 - AMERICAN LITERATURE\n*813 - AMERICAN FICTION\n*813.5 - 20th CENTURY AMERICAN LITERATURE\nor\n*800 - LITERATURE\n*820 - ENGLISH LITERATURE\n*821 - ENGLISH POETRY\n*821.8 - ENGLISH POETRY OF THE VICTORIAN PERIOD\nUsing the schedules of DC, now write down the //chain// of the class number, ''214.8''\n\n[[Check your answer|frame 12]]
The answer is MOHAMMEDANISM.\n\nThis term is now regarded as rather archaic, but it is still found form time to time, and may be searched for no less than ISLAM. Index entries would be required for each term.\n\nNow try indexing ''616.953'' completely, remembering to do the analysis first, then [[check it out|frame 101]]
The correct analysis is:\n\n616.953&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;RABIES (HYDROPHOBIA)\n616.95&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;VENEREAL AND ZOOGENESIS DISEASES\n616.91-.96&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;COMMUNICABLE DISEASES (hidden link)\n616.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;OTHER DISEASES (unsought link)\n616.1-.9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SPECIFIC DISEASES (hidden link)\n616&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;MEDICINE\n610&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;MEDICAL SCIENCE\n600&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;TECHNOLOGY (false link)\n\nWhat will the correct index entries be?\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 102]]\n
The required index entries are:\n\n''RABIES: DISEASES: MEDICINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616.953\nHYDROPHOBIA: DISEASES: MEDICINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616.953''\n\n(These are the required synonymous terms given in the schedules.)\n\n''ZOOGENOUS DISEASES: MEDICIINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616.95\n~ANIMAL-BORNE DISEASES: MEDICINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616.95''\n\n(Again, these are synonymous terms. ZOOGENOUS DISEASES is the correct term to chose from the compound heading at 616.95 in the schedules.)\n\n''COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: MEDICINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616.91/616.96\nCONTAGIOUS DISEASES: MEDICINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616.91/616.96''\n\n(More synonyms!)\n\n''DISEASES: MEDICINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616.1/616.9''\n\n(Note that SPECIFIC is not a sought term.)\n\n''MEDICINE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;616\nMEDICAL SCIENCES&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;610''\n\nIf you have got this completely correct, the you have done very well. [[Continue|frame 103]]\n\n\n
We have concentrated in this text on the alphabetical subject index, but it must be remembvered that this is linked to the classified file, which must be adequately guided to ensure that the user can find the items for which s/he is searching. The usual means of achieving this is by the use of guide headings, but these can be augmented by //feature headings//. A feature heading consists of the specific class number for the document, followed by the term describing the last link in the chain, thus:\n\n''621.381958&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;DIGITAL COMPUTERS\nLEVEY, Mark\n&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;An introduction to computers for the layman...''\n\nBNB uses feature headings extensively, and [[some examples|frame 104]] from the national bibliography may clarify the concept.
Examples from BNB of the use of feature headings:\n\n''633&mdash;Crops''\n633.4&mdash;Root crops\n633.49&mdash;Tubers\n633.491&mdash;Potatoes\n633.491[1]&mdash;Diseases\n&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;~MI-DOX early warning manual for\n&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;diseases and pests of potatoes...\n\n''678&mdash;Rubber''\n678.6&mdash;Natural rubber\n678.64&mdash;Properties\n678.64[1]&mdash;Testing. //Specifications//.\n&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION\n&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Methods of testing vulcanized rubber...\n\n''739.2&mdash;Work in precious metals''\n739.23&mdash;Silver\n739.23[1]&mdash;Hallmarks.\n&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;BLY, John\n&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Discovering hallmarks on English silver...\n\nNote that in a card catalogue only the final feature heading (the most specific) would appear on the card for the actual document.\n\nNow [[continue|frame 105]]\n\n\n\n
It must also be realised that it is necessary to keep some control over the headings adopted for class numbers, in order to ensure consistency. This is done by maintaining an //authority file//, which consists of a file of class numbers in schedule order, together with the heading or headings adopted; for example:\n\n''581.128&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION: PHYSIOLOGY: BOTANY\n581.129&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;TRANSPIRATION: BOTANY\n581.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;NUTRITION: PHYSIOLOGY: BOTANY\n581.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;METABOLISM: PHYSIOLOGY: BOTANY\n581.132&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;DIGESTION: PHYSIOLOGY: BOTANY''\n\nWhat would be the authority file entries for the following class numbers?\n\n''391.44\n391.5''\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 106]]\n\n
The authority file entries would be:\n\n''391.44&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;FANS: COSTUME\n391.44&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;PARASOLS: COSTUME\n391.44&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;CANES: COSTUME\n391.44&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;EYEGLASSES: COSTUME\n391.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;HAIRSTYLES: FASHION\n391.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;BEARDS: FASHION\n391.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WIGS: FASHION''\n\nNote the change in terminology for the subheading, necessitated by an inadequate degree of subdivision in the classification scheme.\n\n[[Continue|frame 107]]\n\n
We have now come to the end of the text. Naturally, in concentrating upon fundamentals we have left a good deal unsaid: chain indexing is relatively automatic but not completely so, and much must be left to the indexer to discover in the course of practical work. Many of the problems that occur cannot be formalised very easily and, hence, depend for their solution upon the flair of the indexer. But with this text as a basis, the indexer should be better placed to exercise that flair.\n\nYou can now go on to look at some worked examples in using chain indexing with DC - [[Appendix 1]] and with other classification schemes - [[Appendix 2]]
You are partly correct.\n\nThe alphabetical subject index //does// act as a guide to the correct class number for a subject, but the point made by the previous lesson was that it performed a job which the classified sequence could not do - namely, that of drawing together under the name of a subjectthe aspects of that subject which are scattered by the structure of the classification scheme.\n\nIf you now understand this point [[move on|frame 10]]; if not, return to and re-read [[the previous frame|frame 8]] and select the correct answer.
The correct chain is:\n*200 - RELIGION\n*210 - NATURAL RELIGION\n*214 - THEODICITY\n*214.8 - PROVIDENCE\nIf your own answer does not agree with this, check carefully to find out where you went wrong.\n\nNow try: ''336.274'', and, after writing it down, [[check the answer|frame 13]].
The correct chain is:\n*300 - THE SOCIAL SCIENCES\n*330 - ECONOMICS\n*336 - PUBLIC FINANCE\n*336.2 - TAXATION (COMPULSORY REVENUES)\n*336.27 - OTHER TAXES\n*336.274 - LICENCES\nAgain, check your answer and then try this more difficult class number: ''837.910 8''\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 14]]
The correct chain is:\n*800 - LITERATURE\n*830 - LITERATURE OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES\n*837 - GERMAN SATIRE\n*837.91 - 20th CENTURY GERMAN SATIRE\n*837.910 8 - COLLECTIONS OF 20th CENTURY GERMAN SATIRE\nIf you have arrived at some other answer, it is possibly because you have had difficulty in following the 'divide-like' notes in the literature class. Check very carefully and make sure that you understand the instructions.\n\n [[Continue the course|frame 15]]
You will now know what a //chain// of classes is.\n\nThe next step is to understand what we mean by //analysing the chain//. In this process we must identify the specific subject of each digit in the class number under which the document is classified. To do this it is useful to write the chain of classes down in a different form.\n\nIn frame 10 we used the example 813.5 20th CENTURY AMERICAN FICTION; its chain was:\n*800 - LITERATURE\n*810 - AMERICAN LITERATURE\n*813 - AMERICAN FICTION\n*813.5 - 20th CENTURY AMERICAN FICTION\nWe can analyse the chain, digit by digit, attaching to each digit a term to signify the //specific// meaning of that digit:\n*8 - LITERATURE\n**1 - AMERICAN\n***3 - FICTION\n****.5 - 20th CENTURY\nNow do the same thing for the class number ''821.8'' and [[check the answer|frame 16]]
The correct analysis is:\n*8 - LITERATURE\n**2 - ENGLISH\n***1 - POETRY\n****.8 - VICTORIAN PERIOD\nAnalysing the class number in this way is an essential step: //it must be done on every occasion//, otherwise links in the chain will be missed.\n\n[[Continue|frame 17]]
The importance of analysing the chain may not be recognised without a little further comment. Chain indexing is near-automatic procedure; how automatic depends upon the classification scheme used. In a perfectly designed classification scheme chain indexing would be perfectly automatic, but this would depend upon the careful ahalysis of every class number. Hence, for a scheme which is less than perfect, the analysis of the chain is an //absolute essential//. If you try to do chain indexing without analysing the chain you will fail dismally - it must be done on every occasion. Having established what a chain is and the importance of analysing it, we have to consider how to use this information in constructing the subject index entries.\n\n[[Continue|frame 18]]
In constructing //subject index// entries a number or rules must be followed, the first of which is:\n\n@@color(red):Rule 1: the first term to be indexed is that which identifies the last link in the chain.@@\n\nIn the case of the class number ''841.009'' where ''9'' means CRITICISM, what will be the first term to be listed for entry in the index?\n\n[[Check your answer|frame 19]]
The correct answer is CRITICISM, this being the last term in the chain. If you did not choose this term, re-read [[Rule 1|frame 18]] and check your analysis again.\n\nNow try again with the following numbers:\n\n''616.931 5''\n''725.87''\n''581.55''\n\n[[Check the answers|frame 20]]
No, you have made the wrong choice. A //dictionary catalogue// consists of a single alphabetical sequence of names of subjects, names of authors, and first words of titles.\n\nIf you are uncertain of the distinctions between different types of catalogues you should read the appropriate chapters of a general textbook such as A.C. Foskett's //Subject approach to information// (Bingley, 1969), or the definitions in T. Landau's //Encyclopedia of librarianship// (Bowes, 1961)\n\nNow [[go back |frame 1]] and choose the correct name.
The correct terms are:\n*''616.931 5'' - BOTULISM\n*''725.87'' - BOATHOUSES\n*''581.55'' - COMMUNITIES\nIn order to complete the first index entry it is usually necessary to identify the context of the first term, e.g., in the index to the 17th edition of the //Decimal Classification// scheme ''BOTULISM'' appars in seven different contexts, ''BOATHOUSES'' in two and ''COMMUNITIES'' in eight. For this reason, the next rule is necessary:\n\n@@color(red):Rule 2: each index entry should consist of the term for the link, plus one or more subheadings qualifyiing the term where it is necessary to define the subject more clearly. The index entry is then completed by the addition of the class number appropriate to the liink.@@\n\nNow select the most appropriate term to complete the statement below:\n\nIt is necessary to provide subheadings for index terms in order to remove... [choose the correct word: ''redundancy'', ''ambiguity'', ''duplication'']\n\n[[Continue|frame 21]]\n\n
The correct answer is: 'It is necessary to provide subheadings for index terms in order to remove ''AMBIGUITY'''\n\nIf a concept is associated with more than one subject field, the user of the catalogue must be enabled to locate that aspect which is of interest to him or her; thus, if he found an index entry: ''COMMUNITIES 581.55'' s/he would not be pleased to find information on botanical aspects if s/he was interested in human society.\n\nBearing [[Rule 2|frame 20]] and the above points in mind, is the following statement true or false?\n\n//''The first index entry for the class number''// ''@@color(red):837@@'' //''does not require the use of subheadings.''//\n\n[[''TRUE''|frame 22]]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;or&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[''FALSE''|frame 23]]
No - you have chosen the wrong answer.\n\nThe first index entry for the class number ''837'' would be under the term ''SATIRE'' and, since this concept appears in all literatures, its context must be specified.\n\nReturn and resume the course from the statement of [[Rule 2|frame 20]]
Good! You have chosen correctly. Of course, ''SATIRE'', which is the first term to be indexed, must be qualified, because it is a concept that may occur in any literature. Having established the need for qualification of terms by the use of subheadings in order to remove ambiguity from index entries, we must now establish a rule which tells us which subheadings to use:\n\n@@color(red):Rule 3: the subheadings intended to define the first term in an entry should be chosen from the chain in strict order of increasing generality@@\n\nNow, analyse ''841.009'' and then [[continue|frame 24]]
The correct analysis is:\n*8 - LITERATURE\n**4 - FRENCH\n***1 - POETRY\n****.0 - (meaningless digit)\n*****0 - (meaningless digit)\n******9 - CRITICISM\nIn accordance with Rule 1, the first term to be indexed is ''CRITICISM''' and, according to Rule 2, we must qualify it by using subheadings. Now, according to Rule 3, which terms should be used as subheadings?\n\n''[[CRITICISM: FRENCH LITERATURE - 841.009|frame 25]]\n''[[CRITICISM: POETRY - 841.009|frame 26]]''\n''[[CRITICISM: POETRY: FRENCH LITERATURE - 841.009|frame 27]]''\n''[[CRITICISM: POETRY: LITERATURE - 841.009''|frame 28]]''\n
No, you have not made the correct choice. This class number does not refer to a book on criticism of French literature as a whole, but only to criticism of one literary form within that literature.\n\nRemember Rule 2: @@color(red):'each index entry should consist of the term for the link, plus one or more subheadings qualifying the term where it is necessary to define the subject mroe clearly'@@\n\nThus, the index entry should include the terms for the literary form, and for the language in which the literature is written, i.e., the //correct// entry is:\n\n''CRITICISM: POETRY: FRENCH LITERATURE - 841.009''\n\nNote that the qualifying subheadings ''POETRY'' and ''FRENCH LITERATURE'' are used in the index entry in order of their appearance in the //ascending// chain.\n\nNow [[move on|frame 27]] and continue the course.
No, you have made the wrong choise. This class number does not refer to a book on criticism of French literature as a whole, but only to criticism of one literary form within that literature.\n\nRemember Rule 2: @@color(red):'each index entry should consist of the term for the link, plus one or more subheadings qualifying the term where it is necessary to define the subject mroe clearly'@@\n\nThus, the index entry should include the terms for the literary form, and for the language in which the literature is written, i.e., the //correct// entry is:\n\n''CRITICISM: POETRY: FRENCH LITERATURE - 841.009''\n\nNote that the qualifying subheadings ''POETRY'' and ''FRENCH LITERATURE'' are used in the index entry in order of their appearance in the //ascending// chain.\n\nNow [[move on|frame 27]] and continue the course.
Good, the correct index entry would be:\n\n''CRITICISM: POETRY: FRENCH LITERATURE - 841.009''\n\nNote that ''CRITICISM: POETRY'' is not sufficient because it does not completely remove ambiguity; it is necessary to use further subheadings to accomplish this. Note also that the qualifying subheadings ''POETRY'' and ''FRENCH LITERATURE'' are used in the index entry in order of their appearance in the //ascending// chain.\n\nOur final rule is:\n\n@@color(red):Rule 4: entries are made for every sought link in the chain back to the basic subject.@@\n\nIn the case of the class number 841.009, we had analysed the chain as:\n*8 - LITERATURE\n**4 - FRENCH\n***1 - POETRY\n****.0 - (meaningless digit)\n*****0 - (meaningless digit)\n******9 - CRITICISM\nHow many entries are to be made altogether, and what terms are they for?\n\n[[Check your answer|frame 29]]
No, you have not made the correct choice. This class number does not refer to a book on criticism of French literature as a whole, but only to criticism of one literary form within that literature.\n\nRemember Rule 2: @@color(red):'each index entry should consist of the term for the link, plus one or more subheadings qualifying the term where it is necessary to define the subject mroe clearly'@@\n\nThus, the index entry should include the terms for the literary form, and for the language in which the literature is written, i.e., the //correct// entry is:\n\n''CRITICISM: POETRY: FRENCH LITERATURE - 841.009''\n\nNote that the qualifying subheadings ''POETRY'' and ''FRENCH LITERATURE'' are used in the index entry in order of their appearance in the //ascending// chain.\n\nNow [[move on|frame 27]] and continue the course.
Your answers should be '''four''' and ''CRITICISM''; ''POETRY''; ''FRENCH LITERATURE''; and ''LITERATURE''.\n\nEach of these four terms is a llink in the chain of classes and must, therefore, be accounted for in the indexing process.\n\nNow let us look at a comoplete example, making use of all four rules. The subject to be indexed is represented by the class number ''821''.\n\nFirst, we analyse the number:\n*8 - LITERATURE\n**2 - ENGLISH\n***1 - POETRY\nand the index entries according to the rules will be:\n\nRule 1: ''POETRY''\nRules 2 and 3: ''POETRY: ENGLISH LITERATURE - 821''\nRule 4: ''ENGLISH LITERATURE - 820'' and ''LITERATURE - 800''\n\nNote that we have no entries for ''ENGLISH POETRY'' or ''LITERATURE, ENGLISH''. //Why not?//\n\n[[Because no one would look for them|frame 30]]\n[[Because such entries would duplicate the job done by the classified sequence of the catalogue|frame 31]]\n[[Because they offend against Rule 4|frame 32]]
Yes, this is the correct answer. The kind of catalogue used by the majority of British libraries is the //classified catalogue//. It has three parts: the classified section that gives it its name, an alphabetical subject index, and an author/title section. The section of the catalogue with which this text is concerned is the alphabetical subject index, which is intended as a guide to:\n\n*[[The classified section of the catalogue|frame 5]]\n*[[The shelves|frame 6]]\n*[[The author/title section|frame 7]]
No; it is quite possible that someone may search for these terms but, when making a subject index, consideration must be given to the economics of doing so and to the functions performed by other parts of the catalogue.\n\nIf we make entries in the subject index such as:\n\n''LITERATURE - 800''\n''LITERATURE, ENGLISH - 820''\n''LITERATURE, FRENCH - 840''\n''LITERATURE, GERMAN - 830''\n\nthis section will correspond very closely to the hierarchical sequence of the classified part of the catalogue, i.e., the entries would duplicate the job done by the classified sequence. Remember that the alphabetical subject index must //complement// the classified sequence, //not// duplicate it.\n\n[[Go back|frame 29]] and choose the correct answer.
Good, this is correct. It is uneconomic to provide entries in an alphabetical subject index which duplicate the structure of the classified part of the catalogue. If we made entires for all possible combinations of terms, the index would be much too bulky and expensive to make. Consider, for example, the subject we have been dealing with: \n\n''POETRY: ENGLISH LITERATURE - 821''\n\nIf all combinations of the three words in this entry were put into the alphabetical subject index we would have (in addition to the entry above) the following:\n\n''POETRY: LITERATURE, ENGLISH - 821''\n''ENGLISH LITERATURE: POETRY - 821''\n''ENGLISH POETRY: LITERATURE - 821''\n''LITERATURE: POETRY, ENGLISH - 821''\n''LITERATURE: ENGLISH POETRY - 821''\n\ni.e., a total of six entries for the one class number. We restrict our entries, therefore, to those that do no duplicate the job already done by the classified sequence. Thus, if a user does search for ''ENGLISH POETRY'' he will find the entry:\n\n''ENGLISH LITERATURE - 820''\n\nand the arrangement and guide cards of the classified sequence will lead him/her to the appropriate subdivision.\n\nYou should now be able to do a set of entries for a simple number: first, analyse the following class number: ''343.1''\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 33]]
Yes, it is true that such entries would offend against Rule 4, but the question is - why do we have this rule? The answer to this lies in the economics of making an alphabetical subject index. If we make an entry:\n\n''LITERATURE, ENGLISH''\n\nthis is simply translating the class number digit by digit:\n\n''8 LITERATURE''\n''820 ENGLISH''\n\nand thus we are putting into the index entries that express the hierarchy of the classification scheme in the same manner as the notation. In other words the alphabetical subject index would simply duplicate the job already being done by the classified file.\n\nIf you are still unsure on this point, return to [[our earlier discussion|frame 8]] and review the course from there; if you can now choose the correct answer, [[go back|frame 29]] and do so.
The correct answer is:\n*3 - SOCIAL SCIENCES\n**4 - LAW\n***3 - CRIMINAL LAW\n****.1 - PROCEDURE, TRIALS, EVIDENCE\nNow, assuming that the work classified here is called //'Famous criminal trials'//, what will be the first endex entry we make according to Rules 1, 2 and 3?\n\n''[[TRIALS: LAW: SOCIAL SCIENCES - 343.1|frame 34]]''\n''[[CRIMINAL TRIALS: LAW - 343.1|frame 35]]''\n''[[EVIDENCE: LAW - 343.1|frame 36]]''\n''[[TRIALS: CRIMINAL LAW - 343.1|frame 37]]''
No, you are wrong. Trials are a feature of different kinds of law: criminal, civil, military and canon. The subheadings used must indicate the exact context of the term TRIALS. Now choose the correct answer:\n\n[[''CRIMINAL TRIALS: LAW - 343.1''|frame 35]]\n[[''TRIALS: CRIMINAL LAW - 343.1''|frame 37]]
No, you have made the wrong choice. Remember, those terms are chosen that indicate the meaning of a specific digit in the class number. In this case three terms are provided for the digit ''.1'', PROCEDURE, TRIALS and EVIDENCE. Your task (at this stage) is to select the most appropriate term as the first index entry and then decide which terms should be used as subheadings.\n\n[[Go back|frame 33]] and try again.
No, you have chosen the wrong answer. You are right to choose only one term from those given for the final link, but you have chosen the wrong one - the book is concerned with //'Famous criminal trials'// - try again.\n\n[[''TRIALS: LAW: SOCIAL SCIENCES - 343.1''|frame 34]]\n[[''CRIMINAL TRIALS: LAW - 343.1''|frame 35]]\n[[''TRIALS: CRIMINAL LAW - 343.1''|frame 37]]
Good! This is correct. It is not necessary to add any further subheadings because the term TRIALS is now given its exact context by the subheading CRIMINAL LAW. To add LAW would be merely to duplicate a term, and it is not necessary to add SOCIAL SCIENCES because this is the chief location of law, and other kinds of law can be indicated by appropriate subheadings giving their correct context.\n\nThe remaining steps in the analysis are:\n*3 - SOCIAL SCIENCES\n**4 - LAW\n***3 - CRIMINAL LAW\nApplying all the rules once again, which will be the next index entry?\n\n''[[LAW, CRIMINAL: SOCIAL SCIENCES - 343|frame 38]]''\n''[[CRIMINAL LAW - 343|frame 39]]''\n''[[LAW: SOCIAL SCIENCES - 343|frame 40]]''\n\n
No, you have obviously not been paying attention to the text.\n\nRemember that you must choose the terms //as given//: with a simple subject like this there is no necessity to begin inventing your own entries. Effectively, what you are trying to do is to enter under the term LAW - quite rightly, //but not at this stage.// The number you are indexing is ''343'' and, specifically, the final digit.\n\n[[Go back|frame 37]] and choose the correct term.
CRIMINAL LAW is the correct index entry. This now leaves us with\n*3 - SOCIAL SCIENCES\n**4 - LAW \nWhich of the following is the final set of index entries?\n\n''[[LAW: SOCIAL SCIENCES - 340 and SOCIAL SCIENCES - 300|frame 41]]''\n''[[LAW - 340 and SOCIAL SCIENCES - 300|frame 42]]''\n''[[LAW - 340|frame 43]]''
No, you have made the wrong choice. An //alphabetico/classed// catalogue is arranged by the names of subjects //not// by notational symbols. The names are grouped first into broad subject categories, and within these successively into finer subject divisions.\n\n\nIf you are uncertain of the distinctions between different types of catalogues you should read the appropriate chapters of a general textbook such as A.C. Foskett's //Subject approach to information// (Bingley, 1969), or the definitions in T. Landau's //Encyclopedia of librarianship// (Bowes, 1961)\n\nNow [[go back|frame 1]] and choose the correct name.
No - you have missed a step. Perhaps you think that because CRIMINAL LAW has appeared as a subheading, there is no necessity to use it on its own. But, in that event, how will someone who wishes to find informaiton on the subject locate the entries in the file?\n\n[[Go back|frame 37]] and choose the correct entry.
There is certainly nothing wrong with this set of entries.\n\nHowever, it is not usually necessary to add the main class term when the chief location of a subject is in that class, and when the risk of ambiguity is therefore slight. Normally, therefore, one would omit the subheading from LAW: SOCIAL SCIENCES.\n\nNow [[continue the course|frame 44]], which will proceed to examine some of the problem areas of chain indexing.
Quite correct. It is unnecessary to qualify the term LAW with the subheading SOCIAL SCIENCES because most aspects of law are in this class; the exceptions can be qualified as appropriate.\n\nWe are now ready to examine some of the problems of chain indexing, because, unfortunately, not everything is quite as straightforward as the examples already given.\n\n[[Move on|frame 44]].
You are partially correct. There must, of course, be an entry for LAW but, because of the habit of catalogue users looking under broader concepts than that in which they are truly interested, it is advisable to index also the more general term SOCIAL SCIENCES.\n\nNow, [[move on|frame 44]] and continue the course, which will examine some of the problem areas of chain indexing.
The first problem to be tackled is that of //compound headings//.\n\nThis is something that has already been dealt with in the CRIMINAL TRIALS example, without further comment. A compound heading is one that covers more than one concept, as in:\n\n343.1 - PROCEDURE, TRIALS, EVIDENCE\n\nThe rule for entering such headings is that only the term relating specifically to the book in hand must be indexed.\n\nA compound heading may occur in the form given above, or in the form of two concepts joined by 'and', e.g.,\n\n312.5 (Statistics on) MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE\n\nor in the form of an inclusion note, e.g.,\n\n271.1 BENEDICTINES including CELESTINES, CLUNIACS\n\nWhich of the following numbers is accompanied by a compound heading?\n\n''[[341.57|frame 45]]''\n''[[248.3|frame 46]]''\n''[[370.195|frame 47]]''\n
No. ''341.57'' does not have a compound heading, it is a compound //term//, i.e., the name of a single concept formed by more than one word. A compound heading is one that covers more than one concept. Try again:\n\n''[[248.3|frame 46]]''\n''[[370.195|frame 47]]''
Good! You have learnt how to identify a compound heading.\n\nThe rule for compound headings, as mentioned earlier, is that only the term appropriate to the book in hand is indexed. In the case of a book about STATISTICS OF DIVORCE, class number 312.5, the analysis would reveal the chain:\n*3 - SOCIAL SCIENCES\n**1 - STATISTICAL METHODS AND STATISTICS\n***2 - STATISTICS OF POPULATIONS\n****.5 - ON MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE\nWhich of the following will be the correct first index entry?\n\n''[[DIVORCE: STATISTICS - 312.5|frame 48]]''\n''[[STATISTICS OF DIVORCE - 312.5|frame 49]]''\n''[[MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE STATISTICS - 312.5|frame 50]]''\n
No. ''370.195'' does not have a compound heading.\n\nA compound heading is one which covers more than one concept. COMPARATIVE EDUCATION is the name of a single concept formed from two words.\n\n[[Go back|frame 44]] and try again.
Good - you have evidently remembered the earlier rules correctly. We can now move on to the remaining problems, beginning with //hidden links//. A hidden link is one which does not have a specific class number. In earlier editions of the //Decimal Classification// these were often missed altogether, but in the 17th edition they have been made obvious by printing them in their correct positions and indicating their presence through the use of a solid marginal arrow.\n\nWhich of the following are hidden links?\n\n''[[312 - STATISTICS OF POPULATION (DEMOGRAPHY)|frame 51]]''\n''[[331.3 - SPECIFIC AGE GROUPS|frame 52]]''\n''[[335.1-335.3 - UTOPIAN AND HUMANITARIAN SYSTEMS|frame 53]]''\n''[[494 - URAL-ALTAIC, PALEOSIBERIAN, DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES|frame 54]]''
Oh dear! You have forgotten the earlier rules: the specific term denoted by the ''5'' of ''312.5'' in relation to this document is DIVORCE.\n\nSTATISTICS is the next most general class and, therefore, can be used as a subheading.\n\n[[Go back|frame 46]] and choose the correct answer.
Good, you have chosen the correct answer.\n\nAlthough the alphabetical subject index can act as a guide to the shelving arrangement, its principal purpose is to guide the user to the classified section of the catalogue. Because the classified section arranges entries according to a systematic grouping of subjects perhaps unfamiliar to the user, and because the subjects are represented by symbols from an artificial notation, the user needs a guide from the name of the subject in natural language to its place in the classified section. Here s/he will find entries for all books possessed by the library, rather than only those that happen to be on the library shelves.\n\nYou have grasped the basic idea of an alphabetical subject index and it is now necessary to study its relationship to the classified section more closely.\n\nGo to [[further information|frame 8]]
Oh no! This is a very silly answer.\n\nRemember that, if several terms are given for a link, you must choose only that term which is descriptive of the subject of the document. We are concerned only with statistics of DIVORCE.\n\n[[Go back|frame 46]] and choose the correct answer.
No. Remember that a hidden link is centred on the page and indicated by a marginal arrow. ''312'' is not such a heading. A further guide is that hidden links are usually represented by a block of numbers rather than a single number.\n\n[[Go back|frame 48]] and choose the correct answer.
Wrong.\n\nSPECIFIC AGE GROUPS has an individual class number and is not //hidden// - and if you look again you will see that there is no marginal arrow.\n\n[[Go back|frame 48]] and choose the correct answer.
Quite correct. This example has the hallmarks of a //hidden link//:\n\n(a) there is a block of numbers;\n(b) there is a marginal arrow.\n\nNote that what we are doing is returning to the subject of analysing the chain. Simple chains are easy to analyse, but in DC many chains are far from simple, and they embody problems which we are now trying to clarify.\n\nNow we come to the question of how to deal with these hidden links. The answer is quite straightforward - we must include them in our initial anlysis of the class number and decide which links we need subject index entries for.\n\nExamine the following number and analyse it, indicating all hidden links: ''347.5''\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 55]]
No. Many single numbers in DC cover a group of topics - this does not make them hidden links. What you are looking for is a group of topics or a single topic //without// a single specific digit. Now [[go back|frame 48]] and choose the correct answer.
The complete analysis of ''347.5'' is (hidden links are shown in parentheses):\n*3 - SOCIAL SCIENCES\n**4 - LAW\n***(342-349) - (MUNICIPAL, INTERNAL LAW)\n****7 - PRIVATE LAW AND JUDICIAL SYSTEM\n*****(347.1-347.8) - (PRIVATE LAW)\n******.5 - TORT, NEGLIGENCE, DAMAGE\nIf your analysis does not exactly duplicate that above, check to see what you have missed. The most likely step to be missed is:\n\n(342-349) MUNICIPAL, INTERNAL LAW\n\nNote that ''347.5'' is subordinate to this class.\n\nNow try ''526.32'' and then [[check the correct analysis|frame 56]]
The correct analysis is\n\n526.32 - BENCH MARKS\n526.3 - GEODETIC SURVEY\n(526.1-526.7) - (GEODESY)\n526 - MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY\n520 - ASTRONOMY AND ALLIED SCIENCES\n\nAgain, if your analysis is wrong, check to find out why.\n\nIn this last chain we have two examles of our next problem - the //false link//. Note again that the problems that occur are problems of analysis; we are now going to cover earlier ground in greater depth. This serves to emphasise the importance of analysis in making the actual indexing as automatic as possible.\n\n[[Now read further information|frame 57]] on //false links//
//False links// may take a number of forms.\n\nFirst, a false link may be one that does not represent a concept. This is termed a //redundant digit// and could also be described as an //empty// link. In DC the zero is usually a false link, since it is used either to make up the three-figure minimum, as in 320 - POLITICAL SCIENCE, or to introduce standard subdivision, e.g., 620.00212 SPECIFICATIONS.\n\nWhich of the following numbers contain a redundant-digit type of false link?\n\n''403''\n''370.193 4''\n''352.006''\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 58]]
The correct answer is that all three numbers include redundant digits and, therefore, false links.\n\nA second type of false link is one that represents a time concept that lacks a proper name, as in the standard subdivisions '''-0901/09046'',\n\nWhich of the following numbers contain this type of false link?\n\n''[[620.1891|frame 59]]''\n''[[589.225|frame 60]]''\n''[[354.420009034|frame 61]]''
No. This number includes a redundant digit type of false link, not a time concept; the subject is simply MERCURY.\n\n[[Go back and try again|frame 58]]
You are only partly correct. It is true that the alphabetical subject index can act as a guide to the shelves but this is not its main function. Not all the stock of a library will be on the shelves - some material will be on loan, some away being bound, and so on. The purpose of the index is to act as a guide to the subject order of the entire stock as found in the classified sequence.\n\n[[Go back|frame 3]] and choose the correct answer.
No - this number represents UREDINALES and includes no false links at all.\n\n[[Go back and try again|frame 58]]
Good! You have chosen correctly. This number, which signifies GOVERNMENT OF BRITAIN FROM 1800 TO 1900, includes both the redundant digit and time concept types of false links.\n\nThe third and final type of false link is one that represent a class which is not strictly superordinate to one below, e.g., 600 - TECHNOLOGY is not properly superordinate to 610 - MEDICAL SCIENCE. This is probably the most difficult type of false link to identify, because it requires some knowledge of the inter-relatonships among subjects.\n\nWhich of the following numbers has a chain that includes this last type of false link?\n\n''[[574.55|frame 62]]''\n''[[645.1|frame 63]]''\n''[[793.732|frame 64]]''\n
No. The chain for 574.55 is:\n\n574.55 COMMUNITIES\n574.5 ECOLOGY\n574 BIOLOGY\n570 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES\n500 SCIENCE\n\nThis is a perfectly acceptabe chain. [[Go back|frame 61]] and try again.
Yes, you have chosen correctly.\n\nThe class number 645.1 has the following chain:\n\n645.1 FLOOR COVERINGS\n645&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;HOUSEHOLD FURNISHINGS\n640&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES\n600&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;TECHNOLOGY\n\nDOMESTIC SCIENCE or HOME ECONOMICS would be more fittingly regarded as a basic class, and therefore the link to 600 is a false link. Note that ''793.732'' also includes a false link - CROSSWORD PUZZLES are hardly regarded as being among the ARTS. Here, RECREATIONS is the basic class.\n\nWhich of the following numbers includes false links of //any// type?\n\n''[[623.8432|frame 66]]''\n''[[701.17|frame 70]]''\n''[[925|frame 72]]''
Good, you are correct. The chain for 793.732 is:\n\n793.732 CROSSWORD PUZZLES\n793.73 PUZZLES\n793.7 GAMES NOT CHARACTERISED BY ACTION\n793 INDOOR GAMES\n790 RECREATION\n700 THE ARTS\n\nHere, 790 RECREATION can be regarded as the basic class. The link to 700 is false, because RECREATION is not an art in the normal sense of the word. Note also that ''645.1'' includes a false link from DOMESTIC SCIENCE to TECHNOLOGY.\n\n\nWhich of the following numbers includes false links of //any// type?\n\n''[[623.8432|frame 66]]''\n''[[701.17|frame 70]]''\n''[[925|frame 72]]''\n\n
The correct chain index entries are:\n\nSCIENTISTS: BIOGRAPHY - 925\nBIOGRAPHY - 920\n\nThe next major problem in chain indexing is the //unsought link//, which is defined as one representing a concept for which readers are unlikely to search when looking for the specific subject represented by the final digit of the class number. An example may help to explain this:\n\n331.62&nbsp;&nbsp;IMMIGRANTS\n331.6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;OTHER GROUPS\n331.3-331.6 SPECIAL CLASSES OF WORKERS\n331&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;LABOUR\n330&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ECONOMICS\n\nOTHER GROUPS and SPECIAL CLASSES OF WORKERS are vague terms that are unlikely to be sought.\n\nWhat, therefore, would be the correct chain index entries?\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 67]]
Wrong ''623.8432'' does not have a false link in its chain.\n\nYou may have thought that it had because it is subordinate to ''620'' - but the zero does not occur in the actual class number. Such numbers are best analysed thus:\n\n623 MILITARY AND NAVAL ENGINEERING\n62&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ENGINEERING\n6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;TECHNOLOGY\n\nReturn to [[frame 63]] or [[frame 64]] and try again.
The correct chain index entries are:\n\nIMMIGRANTS: LABOUR ECONOMICS 331.62\nLABOUR ECONOMICS 331\nECONOMICS 330\n\nNote that LABOUR and ECONOMICS can be run together to form a phrase which is generally accepted in the world of economics. Note also that although 331-3-331.6 is a //hidden link//, it is also //unsought//, and is therefore not included. Thus, some of our initial analysis may seem wasted, but it must nevertheless be done scrupulously on every occasion, lest important steps otherwise be missed.\n\nObviously, the idea of an unsought link is open to personal interpretation in many instances, but if common sense is applied a reasonable decision can be reached.\n\nAnalyse the ''364.135'' completely.\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 71]] (but not before you have done it yourself!)
The correct index entries are:\n\nPIRACY: CRIMINOLOGY 364.135\nOFFENCES: CRIMINOLOGY 364.1\nCRIMINOLOGY 364\n\nNote that OFFENCES is not included as part of the first index entry. The reason is that to do so would simply be repetitious, since it adds nothing to the definition of PIRACY which is not provided by CRIMINOLOGY.\n\nAnother problem is present in the class number ''526.32 MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY''. '526' is obviously a subdivision of GEOGRAPHY, but that superordinate term does not appear in the chain. What do we do?\n\na) [[Forget about it|frame 69]]\nb) [[Put in another entry reading GEOGRAPHY|frame 73]]\nc) [[Invert the heading to GEOGRAPHY, MATHEMATICAL|frame 75]]
No, to forget it would no doubt be the easiest way out, but would hardly assist the reader who wanted to know where all aspects of geography were to be found. We must, therefore, provide an entry which will file next to GEOGRAPHY, but show where its MATHEMATICAL aspects are to be found.\n\n[[Go back|frame 68]] and choose the correct answer.
No, you have made the wrong choice.\n\nAlthough title entries in the author/title index may be guides to the subject content of books to a certain extent, the alphabetical subject index cannot possibly guide the user to them, since it refers to the notational symbols of the classification scheme.\n\n[[Go back|frame 3]] and choose the correct answer.
Right - ''701.17'' includes the obvious false link - the zero, which is used to introduce the standard subdivisions. You should also have notied that ''925'' includes a false link - [[click here to find out why|frame 72]].
The correct analysis is:\n\n364.135&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;PIRACY\n364.13&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;AGAINST CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY (unsought link)\n364.13-.17&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SPECIFIC KINDS OF OFFENCES (unsought link)\n364.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;OFFENCES\n364&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;CRIMINOLOGY\n36&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;WELFARE AND ASSOCIATIONS (false link)\n3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SOCIAL SCIENCES\n\nNow, leaving out the unsought and false links, what will be the correct entries?\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 68]] - after you have done it yourself!
Good. ''925'' includes a false llink. If we analyse the number, we get:\n\n925&nbsp;SCIENTISTS\n92&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;BIOGRAPHY\n9&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;GENERAL GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY AND RELATED DISCIPLINES\n\ni.e., ''900'' is a 'hold-all' class which includes a number of subjects, and to add its name to BIOGRAPHY in a chain index entry would be superfluous. You should also have noticed that ''701.17'' includes a zero which is a redundant digit type of false link discussed [[earlier|frame 59]] - i.e., it does not represent a concept, but is used to introduce standard subdivisions.\n\nWhat would the chain index entries for the number ''925'' be?\n\n[[Check the answer|frame 65]]
If you were to do this, what class number would you put beside it?\n\nYou could hardly put GEOGRAPHY 526, because this numbere covers only MATHEMATICA GEOGRAPHY. You need an entry which will file next to GEOGRAPHY, but which will indicate that only the MATHEMATICAL aspects are to be found at ''526''. There is, therefore, only one kind of entry that will suffice, and that is the inverted heading, ''GEOGRAPHY, MATHEMATICAL 526''\n\n[[Now move on|frame 75]]
No, the chain for ''617.3'' is:\n\n617.3&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY\n617&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SURGERY\n610&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;MEDICINE\n\nThus, since SURGERY appears in the chain, there is no need to invert the heading ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY.\n\n [[Go back and try again|frame 75]]
Good: this is correct. You may wonder why the heading ''GEOGRAPHY, MATHEMATICAL 526'' is allowed, when earlier headings such as LITERATURE, ENGLISH were expressly forbidden. The answer is quite simple: in the case of the number 820 ENGLISH LITERATURE there is a superordinate class LITERATURE in the same chain. In the case of 526, the superordinate class GEOGRAPHY is missing, because this aspect of geography is separated from other aspects, and to invert the heading is the neatest solution to the problem. Now, in order to test you on this, say which of the following class numbers includes links for which inverted headings must be used:\n\n''[[617.3|frame 74]]''\n''[[330.91|frame 76]]''\n''[[574.5|frame 77]]''
Good. ''330.91'' does present a problem, because its heading reads ''ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY'' and it is separated from general aspects of GEOGRAPHY at 910; thus, in addition to the normal-order heading ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, the inverted heading GEOGRAPHY, ECONOMIC will be needed.\n\nNow, we cheated a little on this number, because you will observe that the current notation for ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY is not a single number, but a block of numbers, ''330.91-330.99'' and, therefore, the index entries will take the form:\n\nECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 330.91/330.99 and\nGEOGRAPHY, ECONOMIC 330.91/330.99\n\nThis block of numbers has a note that reads: //Add area notations 1-9 to 330.9//\n\nWhich of the following numbers will be the correct one for //Economic geography of Picardy//?\n\n''[[330.9-426|frame 78]]''\n''[[330.9426|frame 81]]''\n''[[330.94426|frame 82]]''\n\n
No ''574.5'' has a perfectly normal chain:\n\n574.5&nbsp;&nbsp;ECOLOGY\n574&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;BIOLOGY\n57&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ANTHROPOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES\n5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SCIENCE\n\nSo there is no heading to be inverted.\n\n[[Go back and choose the correct answer|frame 75]]
No, you have chosen the wrong number.\n\nThe hyphen is not used as a notational symbol in the Decimal Classification scheme and is dropped when the area number is transferred to a class numbeer.\n\n[[Go back and try again|frame 76]]
You have obviously forgotten how to analyse a class number.\n\nWhen this is done correctly, the result is as follows:\n*4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;EUROPE\n**4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;FRANCE\n***2:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;NORTHERN FRANCE\n****6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;PICARDY\nThe correct answer to the previous question, therefore, is ''6''\n\n[[Now move on|frame 84]]
The intention of the alphabetical subject index is to complement the classified section, i.e., it has to do a job which that section cannot do, namely, bring together in an alphabetical sequence those topics that the classification scheme separates; e.g., in the classified section the following topics will be separated:\n*BRITISH PUBLIC LIBRARIES - 027.442\n*BRITISH POLITICAL PARTIES - 329.942\n*ECONOMIC HISTORY OF GB - 330.942\n*A HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ISLES - 942\nThus various aspects of British culture are separated by the structure of the scheme.\n\nThe alphabetical subject index brings these topics together in the following manner:\n*GREAT BRITAIN: ECONOMIC HISTORY - 330.942\n*GREAT BRITAIN: HISTORY - 942\n*GREAT BRITAIN: POLITICAL PARTIES - 329.942\n*GREAT BRITAIN: PUBLIC LIBRARIES - 027.942\nIn defining the alphabetical subject index, therefore, we can say:\n\n*[[It contains entries for the subject of books|frame 9]]\n*[[It complements the classified section by drawing together the distributed relatives|frame 10]]\n*[[It guides the user to the correct class number for a subject |frame 11]]
No, you are wrong.\n\nRemember that, if you perform the analysis correctly, each digit should represent a specific concept; in this case, as follows:\n**4&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;FRANCE\n***2:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;NORTHERN FRANCE\n****6&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;PICARDY\nThe correct answer to the previous question, therefore, is ''6''\n\n[[Now move on|frame 84]]
This is careless! You must add to a class number the entire block of numbers following the hyphen.\n\n[[Go back and choose the correct number|frame 76]]
Good. The correct number is ''330.94426''.\n\nNow, in this number, which digit (or group of digits) represents PICARDY?\n\n''[[4426|frame 79]]''\n''[[426|frame 80]]''\n''[[26|frame 83]]''\n''[[6|frame 84]]''
You have not performed the analysis of the class number correctly.\n\nRemember that, in a class number, each digit usually represents a specific concept, and in this case ''2'' represents NORTHERN FRANCE, and only ''6'' represents PICARDY.\n\n\n[[Now move on|frame 84]]
Good. The correct answer is that only the final digit ''6'' represents PICARDY.\n\nThis exercise is designed to show that any digits that you add as a result of following an 'add area notations' instruction must be analysed in the same way as any other set of digits. In the case of the area tables, the situation is made a little more complex, because unsought links and hidden links tend to be rather more numerous than in other parts of the tables, and therefore even greater care is necessary.\n\nHaving achieved a correct analysis, do we now:\n\na) Index only the final digit and enter it in the index as: [[PICARDY: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 330.94426?|frame 88]]\n\nor\n\nb) [[Index as many steps in the geographical chain as necessary?|frame 90]]
If this is what you insist upon doing, then go ahead - but one day you will run out of space, and will have to find an alternative. The correct answer is that we use a general reference card with the following kind of entry:\n\n''DICTIONARIES''\n<<<\nDictionaries on specific subjects are shelved with the subject. The subject number has ''03'' added to identify a dictionary; e.g., books on ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - 621.381\ndictionaries of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - 621.38103\n<<<\nThe more specific the catalogue's instructions to the user, the more easily will s/he find the information s/he requires.\n\nWhat would be the first index entry given to a ''Directory of the plastics industry'' for which the class number is ''688.4025''? - [[check it out|frame 91]]
Good. This is a sensible solution; otherwise, the catalogues would in time become cluttered with unnecessary entries. The general reference would take the following form:\n\n''DICTIONARIES''\n<<<\nDictionaries on specific subjects are shelved with the subject. The subject number has ''03'' added to identify a dictionary; e.g., books on ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - 621.381\ndictionaries of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - 621.38103\n<<<\nThe more specific the catalogue's instructions to the user, the more easily will s/he find the information s/he requires.\n\nWhat would be the first index entry given to a ''Directory of the plastics industry'' for which the class number is ''688.4025''? - [[check it out|frame 91]]
The correct answer is: ''FRANCE: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 330.944'' and the subsequent entries will be:\n\n''EUROPE: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 330.94''\n''ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 330.9''\n\nThe standard subdivisions, also usully introduced by means of 'divide-like' notes, require special treatment. Imagine what the subject index would look like if every time a subject dictionary was catalogued, we added a new card; there would be dozens of entries under ''dictionary'', and the same for other subdivisions. What then do we do?\n\na) [[Put in a new card regardless of how many subject dictionaries we have|frame 85]]\nb) [[Put in a general reference card drawing attention to the notation of a dictionary|frame 86]]\nc) [[Forget all about it and turn to something else|frame 89]]\n\n
No, this is the wrong answer.\n\nYou must give at least the same consideration to each link in a geographic chain as you would give to any other part of a chain.\n\n[[Now move on|frame 90]]
Don't despair at this late stage - we are almost at the end of the course.\n\n[[Go back and try again!|frame 87]]
The answer you have chosen is only partly true.\n\nNote that the index entries are not entries as found in a catalogue, i.e., they give not description of a book, but simply a subject term (or group of terms) and the appropriate class number.\n\nThe point made by the previous section was that the alphabetical subject index performs a job, which the classified sequence cannot do - namely, that of bringing together under the name of the subject the aspects of that subject that are scattered by the structure of the classfication scheme.\n\nIf you now understand this point [[move on|frame 10]]; if not, return to and re-read [[the previous frame|frame 8]] and select the correct answer.
Good. One must treat geographic subdivisions like any other subdivisions and index any links that are likely to be sought links. In this instance, there is one unsought link. Which is it?\n*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[EUROPE|frame 92]]\n**&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[FRANCE|frame 93]]\n***&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[NORTHERN FRANCE|frame 94]]\n****&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[PICARDY|frame 95]]
Answer: a general reference of the form:\n\n''DIRECTORIES''\n<<<\nDirectories on specific subjects are shelved with the subject. The subject number has ''025'' added to identify a directory; e.g., books on PLASTICS - 668.4\nDIRECTORY OF THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY - 668.4025\n<<<\nOf course such entries are only given once - the next directory to be added to stock would be indexed under subject, and the form element in the class number would be ignored.\n\n[[Continue|frame 96]]
No. Remember [[the definition|frame 65]] of an unsought link: 'one representing a concept for which readers are unlikely to search'. Surely, in this example, EUROPE must be a term for which people are likely to search?\n\n[[Go back|frame 90]] and try again.
No. Surely someone interested in PICARDY is likely to think that, as Picardy is part of France, s/he should search under FRANCE in the index?\n\n[[The definition|frame 65]] of an //unsought link// is 'one representing a concept for which readers are unlikely to search'.\n\n[[Go back|frame 90]] and try again.
Good. This is the right answer.\n\nIt is unlikely that anyone will require all aspects of ''northern''. Compass points are usually regarded as unsought terms. We have [[already noted that|frame 84]] ''PICARDY: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY'' will be the first index entry; what will be the next?\n\n[[Check your answer|frame 87]]
Surely not!\n\nThe specific subject of the book is ''The economic geography of Picardy''. What better term, therefore, for a first entry than PICARDY?\n\n[[Go back and try again|frame 90]]
Chain indexing is designed to enable users to locate books by subject. There is, however, a difficulty in that the class number for a book may be greater in extension that the subject of the book itself - i.e., it may be impossible to classify as specifically as is desirable. Chain indexing provides the answer to this problem through the device of //verbal extension// of the class number. For example, if we have book on ''mudra'', the symbolic emblems and gestures used in Buddhist meditation practices, the nearest we can get in DC is:\n\n''294.3437&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SYMBOLISM, SYMBOLIC OBJECTS, EMBLEMS''\n\nWhen analysing this number, however, we can extend the class number, thus:\n\n''294.3437&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;MUDRA\n294.3437&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SYMBOLISM''\n\nBNB used the [1] notation to extend the class number, and this is useful since it provides notational extension as well as verbal extension. A suitable first index entry, therefore, would be:\n\n''MUDRA: SYMBOLISM: BUDDHISM&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;294.3437[1]''\n\nAn example from technology is ''Uranium fuels for nuclear reactors'', the closest class number for which is ''621.48335 FUELS''. By //verbal extension// the first index entry becomes:\n\n''URANIUM: FUELS: NUCLEAR REACTORS 621.48335 [1]''\n\nIf you have a book entitled, ''Programming digital computers'', the closest class number for which is ''621.381958'', what would be the first index entry?\n\n[[Continue|frame 98]]\n\n\n\n
Answer:\n\n''DIGITAL COMPUTERS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;621.381958\nCOMPUTERS: ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;621.38195\nELECTRONIC ENGINEERING&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;621.381\nENGINEERING&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;620''\n\nNow [[continue|frame 99]] for information on how to deal with synonyms.\n\n\n
The answer is:\n\n''PROGRAMMING: DIGITAL COMPUTERS&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;621.381958[1]''\n\nWhat would be the remaining index entries?\n\nWrite them down and then [[check the answer|frame 97]]
Synonyms do not present a serious problem in a chain index, because the indexer simply makes entries for all synonyms as s/he comes across them. Typical examples are found in the life sciences, where things have both scientific and common names, e.g., \n\n584.25&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;IRIDACEAE (IRIS)\n\nThis would be given to entries in the alphabetical subject index:\n\n''IRIS: FLOWERING PLANTS: BOTANY&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;584.25\nIRIDACEAE: FLOWERING PLANTS: BOTANY&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;584.25''\n\nNote, however, that the indexer must always be alert to detect synonyms. What would be the synonym for the subject at ''297''?\n\n[[Check it out|frame 100]]