place your title here
Place your structured abstract below - Note: DO NOT use citations in the abstract. The abstract is used by secondary services and the citations serve no purpose when the reference list is not provided by such services. Also note that the style of the blockquote is set by the style sheet: DO NOT use any other coding such as <p> or <em>
Introduction. This paper demonstrates bibliographical archaeology as a method for comparing unique characteristics among many copies of the same computer software program. The process is demonstrated using celebrity psychologist Timothy Leary’s Mind Mirror software as a case study.
Method. After retrieving a suitable corpus, data are examined for patterns, and emergent patterns are interpreted using historical inference. This approach builds on Dalbello-Lovric’s (1999) case for bibliographical archaeology, expanding it to include new consideration for the unique qualities of born-digital artifacts.
Analysis. Each artifact is classified according to publication date and presence of supporting documentation, before introducing historical sources for additional context.
Results. Variations among copies of the same software artifact are found to proliferate well after the objects’ initial date of publication. Bibliographical archaeology succeeds in highlighting and contextualizing features of an artifact that were previously overlooked.
Conclusions. Findings support a media-archaeological view of born-digital artifacts, and bibliographical archaeology is shown to provide a programmatic approach in identifying significant archaeological characteristics among artifacts that have yet to be exhaustively studied.
This is a template for your paper for Information Research. The following paragraphs illustrate how citations are made and linked to the reference list; how a table is constructed and how a figure is embedded in the text. You need to open this template in an html editor, such as Dreamweaver, or a free editor such as html-kit. Do not, under any circumstance, use any automatic conversion software and, in particular, do not use the conversion feature of Microsoft Word - this can increase the file size by more than 100% and embeds a great deal of unnecessary code. The appearance of your paper on the site is determined by the style-sheet we use - any additional code, such as that used by Word has to be removed in order for the style sheet to do its work.
Cut and paste the rest of your text into paragraph markers. Sections and subsections should be marked with the heading tags, h2, h3, h4, etc.
Citations in the text must be given a link to the item in the reference list. Thus, if I cite Allen and Wilson (2003), it should be coded as shown here (with only the date in the link) to provide a link to that item in the reference list below. If I use a citation in parentheses, for example, "Some authors (e.g., Choo and Auster, 1993)...", again, only the date should be enclosed in the link. Use the method shown, i.e., first three letters of the first author's name, plus the last two digits of the year. This makes it easy to code the reference list and to have the correct links in the text. If an author has more than one publication in a year, use, for example, "92a" and "92b".
Block quotations should be used when the quotation you are using is of more than 30 words, or when quoting the responses of interview respondents, and the <blockquote> tag is used, e.g.,,
by two futurological tropes… the notion of supersession – the idea that each new technological type vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors… (and) the claim of liberation, the argument or assumption that the pursuit of new information technologies is simultaneously a righteous pursuit of liberty (Duguid, 2006, p. 495)
Note that the mark of elision '...' is not used at the beginning of a quotation and does not require to be placed in square brackets.
When quoting from transcripts of interviews, or from answers to open questions in questionnaire surveys, identify each respondent. For example, in the following, IR12 identifies "Interview Respondent 12":
I find, since my eye operations, that I need a large font, and e-books are ideal from this point of view. IR12
The purpose of this is to demonstrate to reviewers that the quotations come from more than just one or two people. Of course, you may use any symbol you wish to identify respondents, I - interviewee, R - respondent, SW - social worker, ST - student, and so on.
Standard format for a table:
Tables are probably the most complicated aspect of html coding. This is why we have kept it as simple as possible. Do not use any additional coding for column width or height or other attributes for font size, etc. The appearance of the table is set by the CSS3 code and the individual elements have their own default attributes. For example, you need only <th> to indicate a heading cell which is in bold and centred - there is no need to use <th style="text-align:center; font-weight:bold;"> and <td> is always left-aligned, you do not need to indicate this in the coding. The most complicated <td> element you need to use is when numbers need to be centred in a column, when <td style="text-align:center">86</td> is used, as in the code below.
Note: Always use a leading zero before a decimal value, i.e., '0.001' not just '.001'
|Type of search||Search activity carried out?|
|Mediated search of database||15||8.0||172||92|
|Own search of database||100||53.2||88||46.8|
|Search of printed indexes||17||9.1||170||90.9|
|Library catalogue search||42||22.5||145||77.5|
|Library browsing search||38||20.3||149||79.7|
|Search of own collection||48||25.8||138||74.2|
|Search of colleague's collection||31||16.6||156||83.4|
Standard layout for a figure. When labelling figures use simply fig1, fig2, fig3, etc. This makes it easy for the editor to add "p742", to identify p742fig1, p742fig2, etc. More complex names need to be erased in the editing process: 'template' is used below simply because the figure is not identified with a specific paper.
The HTML5 coding for a figure is very simple, as you see: no information is needed in the alt attribute of the figure, because of the existence of the figcaption element. Do not create any more elaborate coding for a figure: text alignment, font family and size are all set by the CSS3 coding for figcaption.
[It is usual to acknowledge whatever support agency provided funds for the research, contributing co-workers, referees (where their comments have led to significant changes) and copy-editors (where their work has been helpful in enabling the author to satisfy the style requirements of the journal.]
About the author
[A brief biography only is required, together with the full mailing address: similar to those already available on the site, e.g.,,
Henry Gibson is an Associate Professor in the Department of Library and Information Science, University of the Limpopo, College Road, Mutale, South Africa. He received his Bachelor's degree in Library and Information and Master of Library and Information Science from University of Borås, Sweden and his PhD from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. He can be contacted at: email@example.com]
[The following are examples of references in the APA 7th ed. style. Note that ALL open Web documents must be archived to WebCite and that the embedded link is in the title of the item, not in the URL. For WebCite archived documents, the embedded link is the WebCite URL as shown in the Gaslikova example below. For more information, see the Instructions for authors]
- Allen, D. K., & Wilson, T. D. (2003). Information overload: context and causes. New Review of Information Behaviour Research, 4(1), 31-44
- Choo, C. W., & Auster, E. (1993). Scanning the business environment: acquisition and use of information by managers. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 28, 279-314
- Correia, Z., & Wilson, T. D (1997) Scanning the business environment for information: a grounded theory approach. Information Research, 2(4), paper 21. Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/2-4/paper21.html
- de Alwis, S. M. & Higgins, S. E. (2001). Information as a tool for management decision making: a case study of Singapore. Information Research, 7(1), paper 114. Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/7-1/paper114.html
- Ellis, D., Allen, D. K., & Wilson, T. D. (1999). Information science and information systems: conjunct subjects disjunct disciplines. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(12), 1095-1107
- Gaslikova, I. (1999). "Information Seeking in Context" and the development of information systems. Information Research, 5(1), paper 67. Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/5-1/paper67.html (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/63UQ672d7)
- Katzer, J., & Fletcher, P. T. (1992). The information environment of managers. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 27, 227-263.
- Niedźwiedzka , B. (2003). A proposed general model of information behaviour. Information Research, 9(1), paper 164. Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/9-1/paper164.html (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/63UQ9trxT)
How to cite this paper
Any appendices should be inserted here, before the final footer information